Dreaming of a house indicates the many facets of yourself and the experiences you have had during your waking life. Dreaming about the rooms in a house can relate to different characteristics of an individual’s personality. When analyzing the house in your dream, try to remember the condition it was in, how everything in it was arranged and how you felt being in each room. For example was the room disorganized, messy, tidy or unfamiliar? Dreaming of other sections in a house may represent something specific that is bothering you, or it may reveal some overall concerns you are having. Pay attention to all of the details in your dreams and you will definitely learn and uncover more about yourself.
The perspective or view of the house takes on specific meaning. The front of a house connects to the persona, the part of you that you show the world. The back is what is private or hidden. What you discover on the inside reflects various, compartmentalized aspects of yourself. Side views or alternate angles may connect to presenting yourself in the world in a limited, partial or inaccurate fashion.
The size, style, condition and reflection of abundance levels will play a key role in interpreting this symbol in a dream. You will need to consider both the feelings evoked by the house in the dream itself, as well as what comes up for you when comparing it to your actual, waking-life home. Whatever shades of meaning you glean from your dream must be interpreted as reflecting an unconscious expression of self.
A mansion on a grand scale may indicate a sense of opening yourself up to greater levels of abundance. This could also be revealing a level of inappropriate grandiosity, depending on your current levels of esteem. Conversely, a moment in life that feels constraining and steeped in lack might evoke a dream image of a house that is more hovel than home. Yet, this same image could be a symbolic representation of deeper levels of humility emerging within you.
A new house might mean a new sense of self is on the horizon, or needs to be. An older, dilapidated model reflects feelings in sync with such a visual image. Adding an extension indicates such an expansion may be occurring on a personal level. A house on fire is expressing that powerful levels of transformation are afoot. Whatever the Dreaming Lens is offering you about a house should be incorporated into an interpretation of your sense of self at the time of the dream.
Attic – To see an attic in your dream represents hidden memories or repressed thoughts that is being revealed. It also symbolizes your mind, spirituality, and your connection to the higher Self. Alternatively, it signifies difficulties in your life that may hinder you from attaining your goals and aspirations. However, after a long period of struggle, you will overcome these difficulties. To see a cluttered attic in your dream, is a sign to organize your mind and thoughts. Perhaps, you need to rid yourself of the past and let go of the past emotions that are holding you back.
Balcony – To see or dream that you are on a balcony, refers to your desire to be seen and noticed. You are searching for prestige and higher status. It may also mean that you are on your way up the social ladder. If the balcony is clean, then it indicates that you are looked up to by others. If the balcony is old, then it suggests that your public image is in need of repair. Alternatively, the balcony could signify your ambivalence regarding a situation. You are feeling torn or undecided.
Basement – To dream that you are in a basement symbolizes your unconscious mind and intuition. The appearance of the basement is an indication of your unconscious state of mind and level of satisfaction. It represents primal urges, animalistic desires and basic needs. The dream may also be metaphor for “abasement” or being “debased”. Are you feeling humbled or unworthy? To dream that the basement is in disarray and messy, signifies some confusion in which you need to sort out. These are things that you have “stored” away or put aside in your mind because you do not know what to do with it or you do not have the time to deal with it. It may also represent your perceived faults and shortcomings.
Bathroom – To dream that you are in the bathroom relates to your instinctual urges. You may be experiencing some burdens/feelings and need to “relieve yourself”. Alternatively, a bathroom symbolizes purification and self-renewal. You need to cleanse yourself, both emotionally and psychologically. To dream that you are in a public restroom with no stalls or that there are a lot of people around while you are trying to do your business, signifies your frustrations about getting enough privacy. You are always putting others ahead of your own needs. As a result, you are lacking a sense of personal space. Alternatively, the dream indicates that you are having difficulties letting go of old emotions. You are afraid that if you reveal these feelings, then others around you will judge and criticize you. To dream that you are in a bathroom meant for the opposite sex, suggests that you are overstepping your boundaries. You have crossed the line in some situation. To dream that you cannot find the bathroom signifies that you are have difficulties in releasing and expressing your emotions.
Bedroom – To dream that you are in the bedroom, signifies aspects of yourself that you keep private and hidden. It is also indicative of your sexual nature and intimate relations.
Ceiling – To see a ceiling in your dream represents a mental or spiritual perspective. It may also symbolize the limit you have set for yourself. If you see vaulted ceiling in your dream, then it signifies your askew perspective or view.
Cellar – To dream that you are in a cellar, represents a part of your subconscious mind where you have kept your fears and problems hidden. To dream that you are going down the cellar, signifies that you are digging deep into your own past and facing your fears.
Chimney – To see a chimney in your dream represents warmth, tradition, and family values. Alternatively, a chimney symbolizes the phallus. So if the chimney is smoking, then it represents sexual release. If it is not smoking, then it signifies sexual tension or your need for sexual release. If the chimney collapses, then it implies impotence.
To dream that you are sweeping the chimney, indicates your need to vent off your frustrations and get things out in the open. You need to release all that negativity and/or guilt that you are holding in.
Closet – To see a closet in your dream symbolizes something in your life that you have kept hidden. It may also signify an unveiling of previously hidden aspects of yourself, as in “coming out of the closet”.
Den – To dream that you are in the den, signifies work, industry, and efficiency.
Door – To dream that you are entering through a door signifies new opportunities that are presented before you. You are entering into a new stage in your life and moving from one level of consciousness to another. In particular, a door that opens to the outside, signifies your need to be more accessible to others, whereas a door that opens into the inside, denotes your desire for inner exploration and self-discovery. To see an opened door in your dream symbolizes your receptiveness and willingness to accept new ideas/concepts. In particular, to see a light behind the door, suggests that you are moving toward greater enlightenment/spirituality.To dream that the door is closed or locked signifies opportunities that are denied and not available to you or that you have missed out on. Something or someone is blocking your progress. It also symbolizes the ending of a phase or project. In particular, if you are outside the locked door, then it suggests that you have anti-social tendencies. If you are inside the locked door, then it represents harsh lessons that need to be learned. To dream that you are locking the door suggests that you are closing yourself off from others. You are hesitant in letting others in and revealing your feelings. It is indicative of some fear and low self-worth. If someone slams the door in your face, then it indicates that you are feeling shut out or some activity or that you are being ignored. To see revolving doors in your dream suggests that you are literally moving in circles and going nowhere. You may feel that your opportunities and choices lead to a dead end.
Door Bell – To dream that you hear or ring a door bell foretells of unexpected news that is most likely going to be negative.
Driveway – To see or drive up to a driveway in your dream symbolizes an end to your journey. It also represents security and rest. Alternatively, it denotes your path toward achieving inner peace and toward finding your spirituality. To see rocks on the driveway refers to a rocky end to some journey.
Fence – To see a fence in your dream signifies an obstacle or barrier that may be standing on your path. You may feel confined and restricted in expressing yourself. Are you feeling fenced in some situation or confined in some relationship? Alternatively, it may symbolize a need for privacy. You may want to shut off the rest of the world. To dream that you are climbing to the top of a fence denotes success. If you climb over the fence, then it indicates that you will accomplish your desires via not so legitimate means. If you dream that you are on the fence, then the dream may be a metaphor indicating that you undecided about something. To dream that you are building a fence, suggests that you are building a solid foundation for success. Alternatively, it indicates that you are blocking something out or you are shutting yourself out. To dream that you fall from a fence denotes that you are in way over your head in regards to some project which you are incapable of dealing with. To see animals jumping over a fence into an enclosure foretells that you will receive assistance from an unexpected source. To see them jumping out, signifies loss.
Floor – To see the floor in your dream represents your support system and sense of security. You have a firm foundation that you can depend on. The floor in your dream may also symbolize the division between the subconscious and conscious. Alternatively, the dream may be a pun on being “floored” or being completely surprised. Perhaps you have been caught off guard about something. To kiss the floor in your dream implies that you are grateful for the life you have. To see a polished, wooden floor in your dream indicates that you are fully aware of your unconscious and keeping it suppressed. To see a slanted floor in your dream, foretells that you are deviating too far from your original plans and goals. To dream about the floors of a building represents your level of understanding, awareness or success. the higher floors signify higher accomplishments and achievements. If you are in the lower floors, then it refers to more primal attitudes, the unconscious and/or sexuality. It also denotes failures. Consider the significance of the floor number and the type of building the floors are on. To dream that the floor is made of rubber suggests that you are testing your limits. You are given certain freedoms to explore who you are. Alternatively, dreaming of a rubber floor signifies your forgiving or yielding support system. You are surrounded by people who accept you for your mistakes and flaws.
Garage – To dream that you are in a garage signifies a period of inactivity and idleness in your life. You feel that you are lacking direction or guidance in achieving your goals. To dream that you are pulling your car into the garage represents security and stability brought about by your accomplishments and efforts. To dream that you are opening the garage door denotes that you have made a decision about a matter. You have decided on the path you want to take to reach your opportunities and goals. On the other hand, if you are closing the garage door, then it suggests that you are putting off your goals for the sake of others around you.
Garden- To see a vegetable or fruit garden in your dream indicates that your hard work and diligence will pay off in the end. It is also symbolic of stability, potential, and inner growth. You need to cultivate a new skill or nurture your spiritual and personal growth. To see a flower garden in your dream represents tranquility, comfort, love and domestic bliss. You need to be more nurturing. To see sparse, weed-infested garden, suggests that you have neglected your spiritual needs. You are not on top of things.
Glass House – To see a glass house in your dream signifies that flattery is likely to hurt you. To dream that you are living in a glass house, signifies the threatened loss of your reputation.
Hallways – To see a hallway in your dream symbolizes self-exploration. It is the beginning of the path that you are taking in life. You are going through a transitional phase and journeying into the unknown. It also signals spiritual enlightenment, emotional growth physical prowess, new opportunities and mental passages in your life.
Home – To see your home in your dream signifies security, basic needs, and values. You may be feeling at “home” or settled at your new job or environment. Alternatively, the dream represents your basic needs and priorities. In particular, to see your childhood home, your hometown, or a home that you previously lived in indicates your own desires for building a family or your beliefs about home. It also reflects aspects of yourself that were prominent or developed during the time you lived in that home. You may experience some unfinished feelings that were now being triggered by a waking situation. Alternatively, the dream may symbolize your outdated thinking. To dream that you cannot find your way home indicates that you have lost faith and belief in yourself. It may also signify a major transition in your life.
House – To see a house in your dream represents your own soul and self. Specific rooms in the house indicate a specific aspect of your psyche. In general, the attic represents your intellect, the basement represents the unconscious, etc. If the house is empty, then it indicates feelings of insecurity. If the house is shifting, then it suggests that you are going through some personal changes and changing your belief system. To dream that a house has no walls, represents a lack of privacy. You feel that everyone is looking over your shoulder or up in your business. To see an abandoned house in your dream implies that you have left behind your past. You are ready to move forward toward the future. To dream that you are cleaning your house signifies your need to clear out your thoughts and get rid of old ways. You are seeking self-improvement. If you live with others in your waking life, but dream that you are living alone, suggests that you need to take new steps toward independence. You need to accept responsibilities and be more self-reliant.
To see an old, run-down house in your dream represents your old beliefs, attitudes and how you used to think or feel. A situation in your current life may be bringing about those same old attitudes and feelings. Alternatively, the old house may symbolize your need to update you mode of thinking. If you see messy and/or dilapidated houses in your dream, then it implies that an aspect of your own life is in chaos. You may be suffering from some emotional or psychological clutter. You need to release these feelings in order to regain control. To dream that your house is damaged indicates your waking concerns about the condition of your house. To see a new house in your dream indicates that you are entering into a new phase or new area in your life. You are becoming more emotionally mature. If you are locked out of the house, then it represents rejection and insecurity. You feel you are being left behind. To dream that your house is broken into suggests that you are feeling violated. It may refer to a particular relationship or current situation in your life. Alternatively, it indicates that some unconscious material is attempting to make itself known. There are some aspects of yourself that you have denied. To dream of a haunted house signifies unfinished emotional business, related to your childhood family, dead relatives, or repressed memories and feelings. To dream that a house has disappeared indicates that you are not feeling grounded. You feel uprooted by a particular circumstance or relationship in your life.To dream that water is rising up in your house, suggests that you are becoming overwhelmed by your emotions.
Kitchen – To see a kitchen in your dream signifies your need for warmth, spiritual nourishment and healing. It may also be symbolic of the nurturing mother or the way that you are for your loved ones. Alternatively the kitchen represents a transformation. Something new or life altering is about to occur. The dream could also be telling you that if “you can’t stand the heat, then you need to get out of the kitchen”. You need to abort your plans.
Living Room – To dream that you are in the living room represents the image that you portray to others and the way which you go about your life. It is representative of your basic beliefs about yourself and who you are. Alternatively, the living room is indicative of your freedom and space. This is the boundary between your personal self and your public self. Objects that do not belong in the living room denotes the various aspects of your life that are invading your personal space.
Mansion – To see a mansion in your dream suggests that you need growth. You may feel that your current situation or relationship is in a rut.
Passageway – To discover secret passageways in your dream, parallel to something new and/or exciting that is occurring in your waking life. It refers to a new opportunity, a new relationship, or a new attitude toward life. If you wake up before fully exploring these passageways, then it suggest that you may not know how to take advantage of these opportunities or how to move forward with a relationship. Perhaps the newness and uncertainty of this discovery also makes you a little more cautious. Overall, this is a positive dream.
Patio – To dream that you are in the patio represents your openness toward a particular situation. To dream that the doors to the patio are opened, refer to your receptive state of mind. If they are closed, then it indicates that you are not being open to a situation. Patio doors symbolize the merging of your mental and spiritual state.
Porch – To dream of a porch represents your personality, your social self, your facade and how you portray yourself to others. Consider the condition and size of the porch. In particular to dream of an enclosed porch, suggests of your tendency to distance yourself from others and your desires for privacy. To dream of an opened porch, signifies your outgoing nature and welcoming attitude.
Roof – To see a roof in your dream symbolizes a barrier between two states of consciousness. You are protecting or sheltering your consciousness, mentality, and beliefs. The dream provides an overview of how you see yourself and who you think you are. To dream that you are on top of a roof symbolizes boundless success. If you fall off the roof, then it suggests that you do not have a firm grip and solid foundation on your advanced position. If you dream that the rooftops are falling away from you as you cross from rooftop to rooftop, then it implies that there is no turning back once you move forward with your goals. You need to stay the course and continue to move forward. If you are re-roofing in your dream, then it suggests that you need to raise your goals and set your sights higher. To dream that the roof is leaking represents distractions, annoyances, and unwanted influences in your life. New information is slowly revealing itself to you. Something is finally getting through to you. Alternatively, the dream means that someone is imposing and intruding their thoughts and opinions on you. To dream that the roof is falling in, indicates that your high ideals are crashing down on you. Perhaps you need to rethink the high expectations or goals you have set for yourself.
Room – To dream that you are in a room, represents a particular aspect of yourself or a particular relationship. Dreams about various rooms often relate to hidden areas of the conscious mind and different aspects of your personality. To dream that you find or discover a new room, suggests that you are developing new strengths and taking on new roles. You may be growing emotionally. Consider what you find in the discovered room as it may indicate repressed memories, fears, or rejected emotions. Alternatively, such rooms are symbolic of neglected skills or rejected potential. To see an appealing or comfortable room in your dream signifies opulence and satisfaction in life.To dream that you are in an empty white room, indicates a fresh start. It is like a blank canvas. You want to start life anew. Alternatively, the dream means that you are trying to isolate yourself. You do not want any outside influences. To see a dark, eerie or confining room denotes that you feel trapped or repressed in a situation. To dream of a yellow room suggests that you need to use your mind. You are feeling stimulated mentally.
Stairs – To dream that you are walking up a flight of stairs indicate that you are achieving a higher level of understanding. You are making progress into your spiritual, emotional or material journey. The dream is also analogous to material and thoughts that are coming to the surface. To dream that you are walking down a flight of stairs represents your repressed thoughts. You are regressing back into your unconscious. It also refers to the setbacks that you are experiencing in your life. If you are afraid of going down the stairs, then it means that you are afraid to confront your repressed emotions and thoughts. Is there something from your past that you are not acknowledging? To dream that you slip or trip on the stairs signify your lack of self-confidence or conviction in the pursuit of some endeavor. If you slip going up the stairs, then it means that you are moving too fast toward attaining your goals. If you slip going down the stairs, then it suggests that you are moving too quickly in delving into your unconscious. You may not be quite ready to confront your unconscious or repressed thoughts. To see spiral or winding stairs signify growth and/or rebirth.
Toilet – To see a toilet in your dream symbolizes a release of emotions or getting rid of something in your life that is useless. To see a clogged toilet in your dream signifies that you are holding in and keeping your feelings to yourself. Your emotions have been pent up too long. To see an overflowing toilet in your dream, denotes your desires to fully express your emotions.
Walls – To see a wall in your dream signifies limitations. Obstacles and boundaries. There is a barrier obstructing your progress. You may be too accustomed to your old habits and way of thinking. To dream that you jump over a wall, suggests that you will overcome tough obstacles and succeed. To dream that you demolish or break down a wall, indicates that you are breaking through obstacles and overcoming your limitations. If you see a wall crumble, then it suggests that you have easily risen above your problems and overcame your barriers. To dream that you are building a wall represents a bad relationship or some childhood trauma. You are trying to keep others out for fear of getting hurt again. It also suggest that you have accepted your limitations. To dream that you are hiding behind a wall suggests that you ashamed in acknowledging your connections. To dream that you are being thrown or shot through a wall, literally means that you need to breakdown those walls that you have put up around you. You need to venture out and explore. To dream that a house has no walls represents a lack of privacy. You feel that everyone is looking over your shoulder or up in your business.
Window – To see a window in your dream signifies bright hopes, vast possibilities and insight. If the window of a house is dark, then it indicates a loss to your perception or vitality. To dream that you are looking out the window signifies your outlook on life, your consciousness and your point of view. It also refers to your intuition and awareness. You may be reflecting on a decision. Or you need to go out into the larger world and experience life. If you are looking in the window, then it indicates that you are doing some soul searching and looking within yourself. It is time for some introspection. To see another face in the window in your dream suggests that you are feeling emotionally distant and physically detached. Also consider the emotion depicted on the face. To see shut windows in your dream signify desertion and abandonment. To see a shattered and broken window in your dream represents your distorted view and skewed outlook on life. It is also refers to a state of vulnerability. To dream that you are fixing or replacing a broken window indicates that you are reassessing your view and outlook on life. You are gaining a new perspective on things. To see a tinted window in your dream represents your need for privacy. You are keeping some aspects of yourself hidden. You also want to remain ambiguous. To dream that you are washing windows suggest that you need some clarity in some matter. Something is not clear. To dream that you are entering or exiting through a window suggests that you are involved in some secretive or underhanded activity. Alternatively, the dream means that you are creating your own opportunities. You make things happen instead of waiting for them to happen. If you fall or are push through a window in your dream, then it means that you are unwillingly going along with a plan. Perhaps you feel pressured into doing something that you really do not want to do. Your own vision is in conflict with someone else’s. To hear a knock on a window means that you will have many good opportunities ahead for you. You have a lot of things to look forward to in the near future.
Yard – To see a neat and well-kept yard reflects your ability to maintain and organize aspects of your outside life, such as work and your social activities.
To see a messy and un-kept yard denotes that aspects of your life are out of your control.
Since we live in our house in waking life, your house in a dream usually represents you or your physical body (the dwelling of your soul).
It may represent your home life and family interactions.
Floors or Levels in the House – The main floor may represent your everyday life. The upstairs or upper floors may represent a higher level of awareness or understanding. The attic may represent memories or you’re Higher Self and the basement may represent your unconscious and repressed memories and emotions.
Rooms – Specific rooms and/or what takes place in them may represent different aspects of yourself or your life.
Cleaning a Messy House – If you dream that your house is messy or dirty you may be repressing negative emotions or neglecting yourself physically.
You may be disorganized or you may not be thinking clearly.
To dream of cleaning your house suggests you are in the process of (or should be) clearing out or ridding yourself of the negativity in your life.
Searching for something in the House – If you are looking for something in your house, you may be doing some soul-searching.
You may have lost something in waking life that you are still trying to find in the dream.
Changes in the House – To dream that you are in your house with some things that have changed may suggest you are going through some inner changes or you may be dealing with a change in some area of your life.
You may be changing the way you think or feel about something or someone – whatever has changed should provide more insight.
House needs repairs – If you dream that your house is damaged or in need of repair, you may be concerned about the condition of your house (or your physical body). There may be repairs that need to be done that you are neglecting or are not yet aware of. Consider what is in disrepair or damaged and check it out in waking life.
Someone else’s House – To dream of being in someone else’s house may represent the house’s owner or your relationship with that person. You may be trying to get to know or understand this person better.
To be in someone else’s house may be addressing some event that took place there. You may be living your life vicariously through this person.
An unknown House – To dream of being in an unknown house or the house of a stranger may indicate you are going through changes and don’t recognize new aspects of yourself that are beginning to emerge.
There may be repressed memories, fears or emotions that you are not acknowledging or dealing with.
Outside of a House – To dream of being outside of a house may suggest an unwillingness to see yourself as you really are.
If the house is dark you may not be seeing something important.
House Break-in – If you dream your house has been broken into, you may be feeling threatened, physically or emotionally abused or it may symbolize an invasion of privacy or disregard for personal boundaries.
If you dream of a specific home from an earlier time in your life, you are looking at the person you are today as a direct result of what was going on back then. This can refer to occurrences in the environment associated with the home and the people in it, as well as developmental issues based on your age at the time, which brings us to our next concept.
Strange Rooms: If you enter a strange room in your dream with various people, known and unknown, this could be a warning to be careful in starting up any new relationships. You may also dream that you are in your own house, but open a door and you are in a completely different environment. For example, you start out in your bedroom, but when you leave the room, you are in a hotel lobby going toward an escalator. This could be an indication that you are longing for a place in your life that you had fond memories of or that you are looking forward to making a change in your life.
Elegant and Well Furnished Room: This might be symbolic of your internal desire for instant monetary fortune.
Empty or Poorly Designed Room: This may indicate some problems resulting from business or personal dealings.
Dark, Tiny Room: This may suggest that you have been trapped or have a need to flee from a corrupt exploit.
Haunted: A haunted house can symbolize repressed emotions or that you need to address unresolved emotional matters or disputes that have taken place either recently or earlier in your life. Seeing a ghost in the house may be a heartfelt visit from a loved one who has passed or be a good omen of something to come. However, do not disregard any negative messages you receive from them. They may be warnings about a relationship or business venture you are about to undertake.
Childhood Home: Dreaming about a home you grew up in may represent your feelings toward family, characteristics you had during childhood, unfinished business or that you are tackling a current problem as you would have done in the past. This can also represent a possible need to reconnect with family.
Unknown House: This could represent parts of yourself that you have repressed.
Attic: This room may represent a place where you can release emotions that you have been holding in for some time. It might also convey your need to deal with memories from the past. Items that are stored in the attic represent fears and discouragements that have led you away from achieving all of your highest goals.
Basement and Cellar: This room is a big representation of your unconscious mind and intuition. It may be that your intuition is telling you that important actions are required with current affairs. If the room looks odd and scary, it could be a premonition of some unpleasant things to come. This is the time to listen to your gut in your waking life. It can also signify your negative thoughts and feelings — it may represent unhappiness. If you have people or past friends in your basement, this may symbolize repressed memories from your younger days. If it is cluttered, there is some confusion that you need to address.
Bathroom: This could be that either you have to go to the bathroom or it can symbolize emotional relief.
Bedroom: This room denotes that part of your life that you keep private. It is symbolic of the intimacies you share or have shared with others.
Dining Room: This room may represent a decision that you have been contemplating in your life. It may also indicate the conditions of your relationships.
Door: A door can signify entering a new chapter or phase in your life or represent new choices we need to make. It can also represent a change in life in emotional, financial or physical ways. It is a symbol of moving on. If the door is locked it may represent that either you or someone else is holding you back, which stirs up feelings of frustration.
Hallway: This can symbolize the path you are taking in your life or a transition period. Depending upon which room of the house you leave to find yourself in the hallway, it can represent either escape or growth. It can also be symbolic of how you meet others.
Kitchen: This can represent your desire for closeness, spiritual growth and love. It also reflects the way you were nurtured or how you nurture others. This room also has a strong connection to the mother or the duties she performed.
Living Room/Family Room: This room conveys how you show yourself to others. Any items that do not belong in this room represent the parts of your life that are cluttering it. If the room is cluttered, it may mean that you have an inability to relax or stay focused.
Roof: Dreaming you are on a roof may imply a change in your ideas and a higher state of spiritual consciousness. If it is leaking, it can mean that you are experiencing aggravations and frustration and/or that it may be time for you to accept a new approach or idea about a situation.
Keep in mind that dreams can be interpreted on many levels. To delve further into dream meanings, there are many trained professionals who specialize in this field.